Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Your answers will be tabulated with those of others to determine information needs, usage patterns, content requirements, format preferences, and overall quality. Thank you for your time and assistance. Directions: Please read this page before filling in your questionnaire. Take the time to fill in the questionnaire carefully and thoroughly. Allow sufficient time before your appointment for completion. Answer every question possible. Answer questions as honestly as possible. Encircle or mark all possible answers which apply to you. I.Target Situation Analysis Tasks, Skills and Activities of Nurses 1 . Which of the following best describes your practice role? (select all that apply) Case manager Clinical nurse specialist Nurse manager/ administrator Nurse navigator Nurse practitioner Nursing instructor/ educator Research nurse Staff nurse Other (Specify) Other (please specify) 2. What are the tasks that you usually do as a nurse? 3. What are the activities that you usually do which ne ed your skills? 4. What language skills and genres do you usually utilize? . Discourse AnalysisDescriptions of the language used by Nurses 1 . What are the demands of the Standardized Language in your field? 2. What are the goals Of utilizing Standardized Language for Nursing? 3. What are the genres and the terms used by nurses? Ill. Present Situation Analysis Capacities of Nurses 1 . According to you, what does it take to make a good nursing leader? Select all appropriate choices. A. Good interpersonal skills b. Good personality c. Better knowledge and skills d. Ability to handle all the members e. Good nature f. Ability to bring the best out of all members .
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Introduction: The importance of learning English cannot be overemphasized in an increasingly interconnected and globalized world. English is the most spoken language in the world as billions of people sheer English language as their official language. It is the primary language used in different international activities. Even in nations where English is not the primary spoken language has official status. English is indisputably the primary language of global trade, commerce, and education. So, for career build up there is no alternate to learn English. What is Language? A language is a systematic means of communication by the use of sounds or conventional symbols. It is the code we all use to express ourselves and communicate to others. It is a communication by word of mouth. It is the mental faculty or power of vocal communication. It is a system for communicating ideas and feelings using sounds, gestures, signs or marks. Any means of communicating ideas, specifically, human speech, the expression of ideas by the voice and sounds articulated by the organs of the throat and mouth is a language. This is a system for communication. A language is the written and spoken methods of combining words to create meaning used by a particular group of people. Read more: Importance of English speech essay Language, so far as we know, is something specific to humans, that is to say it is the basic capacity that distinguishes humans from all other living beings. Language therefore remains potentially a communicative medium capable of expressing ideas and concepts as well as moods, feelings and attitudes. Written languages use symbols (characters) to build words. The entire set of words is the languageÃ¢â¬â¢s vocabulary. The ways in which the words can be meaningfully combined is defined by the languageÃ¢â¬â¢s syntax and grammar. The actual meaning of words and combinations of words is defined by the languageÃ¢â¬â¢s semantics. English as an International language: English is part of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languages. It is spoken as a native language by around 377 million and as a second language by around 375 million speakers in the world. Speakers of English as a second language will soon outnumber those who speak it as a first language. Around 750 million people are believed to speak English as a foreign language. English has an official or a special status in 75 countries with a total population of over 2 billion. The domination of the English language globally is undeniable. English is the language of diplomacy and international communications, business, tourism, education, science, computer technology, media and Internet. Because English was used to develop communication, technology, programming, software, etc, it dominates the web. 70% of all information stored electronically is in English. The latest and the most advanced discoveries and inventions in science and technology are being made in the universities located in the United States of America where English language is the means of scientific discourse. So, it is undeniably true that English is the main international language in the world. The historical circumstances of Bangladesh to learn English: After two hundred years communal rule by the British Raj English language has been using all over the Indian subcontinent as official language. Now-a-days language medium of maximum higher education in Bangladesh is English. Widespread use of internet also paves the way to establish English as inevitable language to learn. With out being fluent in English it is impossible to get job in any corporate business centre in Bangladesh. Learning English for professional purpose: Now-a-days without English language it is impossible to live in a single day. For professional purpose it is a Must to learn English. No person can be explored his/her professional excellence without proper implementation of English language. From very early part of professional development to the higher stage of profession a person need appropriate use of English. So, importance of learning English is never be overlooked. Necessity of learning English in Different professional purposes: In early part of career development, i.e. during educational stage: English language is that window through which we can see the world easily. We need this language for our higher education. Technical subjects are taught in English. Most of the books in modern technology are found in English. If we have no knowledge of English, we canÃ¢â¬â¢t study those books. Many important and great books are written in English. We can enjoy reading various literary books in English. Higher education in first world In universities and colleges in Great Britain, the Unites States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Singapore, which attract the most number of international students, the primary language of instruction is English. So, without obtaining higher score in IELTS or TOFEL no student can enter the universities located in these countries. Job Opportunities in home and abroad: Knowing English opens job and employment opportunities in home and abroad. Multilateral institutions and agencies in aboard recruit professionals with multilingual skills but also expect the candidates to have good English-speaking skills. Without having good commend in both writing and speaking English no body will get job in international agencies, import oriented business agencies and even in local high profile agencies or business centers. Former British colonies or dependencies, also offers numerous employment opportunities to those who understand and communicate in English. We can get a good job easily, if we have good command in spoken or written English. Nowadays we require English even to operate computer, which is a compulsory thing in modern society. Digital Age: While progress has been made in language-translation software and allied technologies, the primary language of the ubiquitous and all-influential World Wide Web is English. English is typically the language of latest-version applications and programs and new freeware, shareware, peer-to-peer, social media networks and websites. Software manuals, hardware-installation guides and product fact sheets of popular consumer electronics and entertainment devices usually are available in English first before being made available in other languages. So, to be a good corporate officer in this digital era there is no option without learning English.
Monday, July 29, 2019
A Journal Report of the Asia-Pacific Business Region(APBR) and the analysis of countries in APBR - Essay Example Military rulers are not given to granting favors to democratically elected governments: China needs energy from Australia at least as much as this southern continent values the business value of this trade. Similarly, Chinese producers, with their great penchant for achieving rapid top-line growth, are under greater pressures to hold their shares of Australian demand for their goods, than the domestic compulsion to reign in inflation Ã¢â¬Ëdown underÃ¢â¬â¢. AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s special relationship with the United States in this connection, should also serve to protect ideological integrity. Many goods produced in China depend on American branding, and it is therefore premature to conclude that courtesy to a visiting spiritual leader would blow the lid off inflation in Australia! The politics of democracy is so fundamentally different from the tyranny of military dictatorship that economic relationships between countries and blocs which follow one or the other extremes of representation of their respective citizens that trade links should strictly adhere to the principles of professional business management. The industrial, commercial, and financial fronts of Australia (Nolan, 1996), the United States, and other like-minded countries are of dimensions which Beijing can neither deny nor sacrifice at the alter of its maniacal annexation of Lhasa. The amazing and dominating growth of trade between Japan and Australia, to which Appendix 1 refers, has occurred specifically during an age when democracy has replaced an executive monarchy in that country. The autonomy which the Dalai Lama seeks within the embrace of Chinese national union is an excellent model for many agrarian communities in ruled by the Beijing of today. Just as the Balkanization of the erstwhile Soviet bloc has helped rather than hurt the economy of the United States, so the extension of freedom throughout the APBR makes excellent business sense for Australia. The Parliamentary rebuff
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Examining Culture as a Process Using Three Texts - Essay Example Examining Culture as a Process Using Three Texts The interesting contrast of Marjane SatrapiÃ¢â¬Ës struggle, depicted in Persepolis 2, is one of an Islamic woman wearing a veil who listens to forbidden music and smokes marijuana. The struggle which exists within Marjane is truly that of so many women in bondage to patriarchal religions and societies who experience some of what modern women may experience. The voice inside of Marjane that reminds her to wear her veil or to be secretive about her activities, is the deeply imbedded voice of her roots and cultural upbringing. Marjane however, is simply trying to discover who she is, independent from the role that her society has placed on her. MarjaneÃ¢â¬â¢s eventful process of going from veiled Muslim woman with many restrictions in life, to educated, self actualized woman, is both long and painful, Ã¢â¬Å"To educate myself, I had to understand everything, starting with myself, me, Marji, the woman. So, I threw myself into reading my motherÃ¢â¬Ës favorite bookÃ¢â¬Å" (Satrapi, p 21). This type of struggle is similarly portrayed within the lives of the Ganguli family in The Namesake. Ashoke and Ashima Ganguli are both submerged into American culture, having both been raised in India. This takes place once they are married and move to America to pursuit AshokeÃ¢â¬â¢s Engineering degree at MIT. The process of adaptation is seemingly much less difficult for Ashoke than for his wife by arranged marriage Ashima. The life of a woman and a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s struggles in particular are present in both of these texts.
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Personalized Nutrition and exercise plan - Term Paper Example The client wants to be able to manage their diabetes for the sake of their own health. Hence, the main idea will be projected towards nutrition, and checking blood sugar levels constantly throughout the day. The client will consume the adequate amount of proteins, carbohydrates, fats along with other supplements. Moreover, additional focus will be geared towards learning more about diabetes in order to be well-informed about the topic, and to be prepared for any situation The client should implement a nutritional meal plan and physical exercise goals in necessary in order to maintain diabetes. The client should try to: engage in a physical activity for at least an hour, eat several servings of foods and vegetables thatÃ release energy into the body cells, consuming foods rich in fiber, and exercising at least 5 days a week. The Food Guide Pyramid is an excellent resource and has a different approach towards nutrition for diabetics. The Diabetes Food Guide Pyramid places starchy vegetables such as peas, potatoes, winter squash, and beans at the bottom of the pyramid, with grains. A diabetic must consume at least 6 servings of this group in a regular day. Furthermore, the client should consume good fats, fish, and fiber-rich foods. Foods such as avocados, almonds, pecans are an excellent source for healthy Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ fats. The client plans to conduct exercise by choosing 4 days from the week during evenings since the client does not have time in the morning. Instead, the client plans to exercise after work. It is essential that the client gets some rest and sugar in their body before exercising. The client is advised to incorporate nutrition and exercise plan by going for a jog or engage any physical activity such as playing basketball, swimming, weightlifting for duration of an hour. The author should also consume around 1600 calories which consist of 225 grams of
Friday, July 26, 2019
Banking Law - Case Study Example The whole point of the cheque card is to make it wholly different with banks promising to pay irrespective the state of the customer's account. The person who produces a cheque card makes no representation that he is in credit with his bank. All the trader is concerned to ask is whether the customer have a cheque card, whether it matches the cheque, whether the cheque is for not more than the permissible credit limit and whether the signature on the cheque match the signature on the card. In the present case the appellant/ accused opened a bank account with the National Westminister Bank. He was allowed an overdraft of 100 pounds of one month which was latter extended for a month. The conditions were printed on the back of the cheque. The issuing bank undertakes that any cheque not exceeding 30 pounds will be honored subject to the fact that the cheque must be signed in the presence of the payee, the signature on the cheque must correspond with the specimen signature on this card, the cheque must be drawn on a bank cheque form bearing the code number shown on his card, the cheque must be drawn before the expiry date of his card, the card no. ... If these conditions are complied with the recipient need not concern himself about the drawers credit worthiness for he knows the cheque would be honored on presentment.A man who gives a cheque represents that it will be met on presentment. And if a cheque is accepted by the payee it is the belief that it will be met. And when it is supported by the bank's undertaking and all doubts in the mind of the payee as to the cheque being honored will be removed if he sees that the stipulated conditions are complied with. But by issuing a cheque book and a cheque card the bank has not authorized him to bind them by the use of the card to honor every cheque in the cheque book. It was observed that by exhibiting to the payee a cheque card containing the undertaking by the bank to honor cheques drawn in compliance with the conditions endorsed on the back, and drawing the cheque accordingly, the drawer represents to the payee that he has actual authority from the bank to make a contract with the payee on the bank's behalf that it will honor the cheque on presentation for payment. Speaking on ostensible authority on its head it was observed that if the other party has believed the representation and on the faith of that belief has acted upon it and the person represented to be his principal has so conducted him self towards that other party as to be estopped from denying the truth of the representation , then and only then, is he bound by the contract purportedly made on his behalf. The whole foundation of liability under the doctrine of ostensible authority is a representation , believed by the person to whom it is made, that the person claiming to contract as agent for a principal has the
Budgeting Coursework - Essay Example The second difference is that the first three stages entail the writing of the budgeting while the last three stages have to do with implementation. Being the writing stages, the first three steps encounter concrete discussion and contradiction among the involved stakeholders. There is a lot of debate at this stage due to its impact on the entire process. This is different from the last three stages which do not require a lot of debate. Professionals in the implementation stage are expected to meet the prerequisite of the budget with limited need for debate. They are not supposed to make any amendment to the budget unless advised. Their ideas that professionals are only expected to meet the expectation of the budget makes the second stage more technical than the first stage. This is contrary to the first section where the players have to ensure the desires of the public are met. The third difference is that the first three stages and most specifically the second and third stages invo lve the budget policy-making process. The fourth stage has to do with the implementation of the agreed policies. Policymaking process requires the politician who represents a definite section of the population. Implementation of the policy requires competent experts who are knowledgeable enough to put into practice the formulated policies. In the political section, the public is involved either through their representative in the legislature or through the media. The interest of the public is addressed during the first three stages.... Being the writing stages, the first three steps encounter concrete discussion and contradiction among the involved stakeholders. There is a lot of debate in this stage due to its impact on the entire process. This is different from the last three stages which do not require a lot of debate. Professionals in the implementation stage are expected to meet the prerequisite of the budget with limited need for debate. They are not supposed to make any amendment to the budget unless advised2. There ideas that professionals are only expected to meet the expectation of the budget makes the second stage more technical than the first stage. This is contrary to the first section where the players have to ensure the desires of the public are met. The third difference is that, the first three stages and most specifically the second and third stages involve budget policy making process. The fourth stage has to do with the implementation of the agreed policies. Policy making process requires politic ian who represent a definite section of the population. Implementation of the policy requires competent experts who are knowledgeable enough to put into practice the formulated policies. In the political section, the public are involved either through their representative in the legislature or through the media. The interest of the public are addressed during the first three stages. Implementation stages involve the experts only. Public members are passive participant in this level. On the other hand, public involvement is not pertinent. Technicians have the biggest role in the last two stages. Why the differences exist All the stages are very imperative in the budget process. One stage cannot be
Thursday, July 25, 2019
International financial markets - Essay Example Bonds and stocks are types of securities, and they are each related to a different set of circumstances that govern the relationship between investor and investee. Financing through stocks and bonds is a delicate matter for a company because it impacts on the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s rate of return as well as financial risk. Financing through equity usually has a higher cost of capital, because equity holders are entitled to a pro-rata share of the profits. Theoretically, therefore, stockholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ expected returns have no limit. However, since the stockholders are not entitled to any returns if the company incurs losses, then there is no default risk associated with equity. On the other hand, debt capital entails a cost of interest to the borrower-firm. Interest rates associated with long-term debt are lower than the cost of equity to the firm, because debt is contracted at a fixed rate and is therefore limited to that rate, even though the firm earns much higher rates of income. There is a risk, however, associated with the possibility of default. Even if the firm incurs losses, its obligation to pay interest on its debt is fixed, therefore its in ability to meet with interest payments may incur for it costly penalties. The nature of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s business affects the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s ideal capital structure Ã¢â¬â that is, the proportion of the needed capital it may finance through debt and through equity. The following are examples of industries and their average debt and equity ratios. It may be noted that companies in the same business do not necessarily have the same capital structures. For instance, in the consumer non-cyclical industry, Starbucks is financed entirely by equity, while Kellog relies slightly more on debt financing rather than equity. Raising money from the bonds market. Large corporations could raise money through the bonds market. The process involves the underwriting of the bonds float by either one or several
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
As We Are Now, May Sarton - Essay Example Unlike what is portrayed to the outside world by the staff members of these homes, the situation on the ground as revealed by Sarton in her book As We Are Now is very different. This essay will seek to provide my in-depth personal analysis of the portrayal and aesthetics of aging in the novel As We Are Now by May Sarton. Many reviewers have categorized the story as a classic horror story filled with sad events but in my opinion, there is a point that Sarton tries to bring across through their vivid description. How are older adults described and portrayed? Please include at least physical, mental and personality characteristics? In the novel As We Are Now, senior citizens have been portrayed as a group of helpless individuals who are bound to suffer in the hands of their caretakers due to a myriad of factors such as contempt, neglect or plain sadism on the part of their caretakers. The old people are seen as mentally unstable and a burden to their families and friends due to their he alth problems that requires them to constantly seek assistance from the younger members of the family. A good example is the persona herself who is brought into the retirement home by her elder brother after she suffers a heart attack and the brother is unable to take care of her. She is viewed as a burden by her brothers much younger wife and this is the reason why she is sent to a retirement home. While older people may be unhygienic and unaware of their cleanliness status, it is evident that they are viewed as dirty people. Those who send them to retirement homes such as CaroÃ¢â¬â¢s brother do so to pass on the responsibilities to other people at a small fee. While this reason may be sensible to some extent, it is evident that many horrific incidents happen in these homes. What is the role and relationship between the older character and other characters in the book? Caro plays many roles as an older character in the novel As We Are Now. In the novel, it is revealed that Standi sh, a fellow aged and deaf senior citizen is her ally since they share the same dislike for Harriet. There is evidence of generational conflict where the two have the same hatred for Harriet who is relatively younger. Caro relates with other characters quite indifferently since very little is revealed about them apart from how they look or their challenges. She gets angry when Harriet vehemently refuses to call in a doctor after Standish health condition deteriorates and he is in great pain. This serves to reveal her personality that despite her aging, she is still loving and caring. There exists a very poor relationship between Caro and her brother. This is evidenced by the fact that he is quick to send her to a nursing home after she suffers from a heart attack. She experiences hateful and hurting treatment from both Harriet and Rose coupled with dehumanizing living conditions. The negativity and resentment that both have towards her make her suffer in silence because Harriet runs the nursing home. What were the occupations of the elders? Upon analysis of the novel, Caro is revealed as a former teacher who had no previous spouse from the fact that she was unmarried. Standish Flint on the other hand is presented as a farmer who is deaf and angry at the fact that he can no longer work in his farm. It is evident that most of the people in the nursing home were once in some kind of employment in their previous years but had to give up their employment in their sunset years. This means that they left the workforce to probably pave way for new and younger talent. Caro does not seem to have as many regrets and anger as that held by Standish. Nonetheless, the general mood I the nursing home
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Managing human resources management - Essay Example Through effective human resource management, employees can contribute effectively to the overall company success and attainment of goals. Human resource management is also responsible for maintaining outstanding associations between employees within the organization. Every employee in an organization has his or her personal goals, and it is the responsibility of human resource management to ensure that the goals of the organization integrate with the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s goals. Therefore, this paper will focus on offering recommendations to St-PatrickÃ¢â¬â¢s Nursing Home human resource manager on how to eliminate the numerous human resource problems and improve on employee retention. Recruitment and selection are a process that engrosses numerous activities that require a great deal of time. The primary aim of recruitment and selection is to guarantee that the most appropriate individuals with the most appropriate skills are employed by an organization. The health sector is a huge service industry that experiences rapid changes. This makes the recruitment process subject to numerous internal and external factors. The selection results should emanate from a systematic and comprehensive process (Fottler et al, 2007: 32). In planning for recruitment, a human resource practitioner is required to be in apprehension of the wider issues that involve the recruitment process. When planning the recruitment of people in the health organization, it is imperative to identify the requirements of a job (Fottler et al, 2010: 45). The staffing needs are articulated in the job analysis. A job analysis is a purposeful and systematic process that offers significant, descriptive information on the job vacancy (Durai, 2010: 77). This analysis offers a broken down evaluation of different components of the job. This analysis also gives the basis of the functions of the personnel (Fottler et al, 2007: 56). Needless to say, this analysis can work best
Monday, July 22, 2019
Understanding Business Research Terms and Concepts Essay The first article discusses the overall Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people; and Building a Foundation for a better understanding. In this article you will find accompanying research on the generally health status of the LGBT community. A condition in order to review existing research on sexual-gender-minority health, this article presents research encounters accompanying with this particular study of LGBT populations. When research method along with data sources that would be used in the studding of these populaces and to determine the best overall reliable practice for directing this type of research on the health conditions on LGBT people, also finding a summary of key on research opportunities. With this topic the three overall important challenges are confronting the researchers attempt to gathering any type of effective and somewhat consistent data for describing the LGBT community and the basics on measuring their health. The first is defining the overall measures of sexual coordination and the gender distinctiveness. Next is overpowering the lack of enthusiasm from some LGBT individuals in order to identify themselves for the purposes of research. The third challenge is to obtain high-quality samples of relatively small populations. Although the Ã¢â¬Å"LGBTÃ¢â¬ acronym is generally applied to more or less lesbians, gay people, bisexual women and men, and also transgender people. These groups are pretty distinct and could also comprise with other subgroups based on ethnicity, race, age, geographic location, and other factors like socioeconomic status. These types of variations have been implicated for the purpose of health research, also including the need to capture sample sizes that are just large enough to help with the understanding of difference amongst certain subgroups. With the research method in all practical of each component the studies design has to be grounded on the deliberation of certain appearances of the people actuality studied, in order for the most actual method of the data received are to beÃ developed. When dealing with the LGBT studies the research needs to identify and choose the most effective methods to balance for the unique research that is explained above. Challenges with sampling requires careful precise of definition on the targeted population of its study. When you set up the target population be sure to set up as well the elements and what information is required overall and what limited estimates that would be required (ONM, 2001). Let just say for example, the targeted population is the LGBT in a particular state, geographic or the community area. If the supporters of this targeted populace are nominated into to a particular sample by random and unbiased mechanism and every individual within the target should have knowledge of being selected into this studies and the overall subsequent study model could be used to attraction implications and will simplify the target population, thus generating a Ã¢â¬Å"representativeÃ¢â¬ of this targeted populace. Other items explain in this article are data collections using quantitative and Qualitative methods. In addition to choosing the most appropriate sampling frame that concerns major methodological concerns over the options of using quantitative and Qualitative methods. With research opportunity its beat that procedures need to be created for take full advantage of its usefulness obtainable data. I next article I came across was about Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice. It discusses how nursing is clearly becoming a bit more evolving towards a likable evidence-based practice regardless of the many obstacles that are processed. In today society trends are propelling around healthcare delivery system for the concentration on patient overall safety, its value, and overall distinction to create a managerial cultural within expectation for all teams members of healthcare. The landmark publications To Err is Human (Institute of Medicine, 2000) and Crossing the Quality Chasm (Institute of Medicine, 2001) have served as the impetus for all healthcare professionals to consider their practice patterns. The quest for Magnet designation has propelled nursing leaders to evaluate whether the care delivery models they use incorporate evidence-based practice, and there is integration of research and evidence-based practice in clinical and operational processes (Turkel, Reidinger, F erket, Reno, 2005). To embed these values among a nursing staff, clinical staff participation in theÃ process of nursing research is critical, as well as the use of evidence to drive nursing interventions (Clark, 2006). I have noted that the research generally process of methodical inquiry to create and develop acquaintance within a self-control or profession. I have also learned that research validates and refinances of existing knowledge and develops new knowledge (Burns and Grove, 2007). With nursing research priorities exists to provide a certain high quality of nursing care for any individual in need of any type of healthcare promotions, also health sustain along with health-restoring strategies. Is showÃ¢â¬â¢s how the overall consequence of this type of research activity for a typical nurse would be ultimately and put its knowledge increased to work along with its healthcare delivery! Something else I have found about research priorities is that; frequently set up by groups that will fund its research just to reassure nurse researchers and to possibly devote time and money within in those types of areas! Looking at its study designs tells the researcher how data would be collected. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s noted that the researcher indicates a method founded on a question along with the current levels of knowledge about the issues at hand to be studied. The concept like caring, pain and unhappiness are of principal importance (Speziale and Carpenter, 2007); this design provides a dimension of understanding and adds to the traditional quantity method. For an overall general understanding Nurses of just about every level should really critically read these types of research journal articles. It also explains the types of levels and evidence that exists and it many forms. Perhaps you can see that the most obvious form would be the journal article that helps to describe a single research study. It states that certain subject has been extensively studied; other research articles with more information may also be wide-ranging as well. Previous to EBP, the readers were responsibly for original reports to evaluate and to agree if any of the supporting documentation could be used in a practice setting. References: http://phoenix.summon.serialssolutions.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/search?s. q=business+problem+is+researched+using+a+qualitative+design+and+the+other+using+a+quantitative+design AAPOR (American Association for Public Opinion Research) Best practices. 2010. [October 22, 2010].https://wwwÃ¢â¬â¹.aapor.org/Best_Practices.htm. Aaron DJ, Chang YF, Markovic N, LaPorte RE. Estimating the lesbian population: A capture-recapture approach.Journal of Epidemiology Community Health. 2003;57(3):207Ã¢â¬â209. [PMC free article] [PubMed] Almeida J, Johnson RM, Corliss HL, Molnar BE, Azrael D. Emotional distress among LGBT youth: The influence of perceived discrimination based on sexual orientation. Journal of Youth Adolescence. 2009;38(7):1001Ã¢â¬â1014.[PMC free article] [PubMed] Austin SB, Conron K, Patel A, Freedner N. Making sense of sexual orientation measures: Findings from a cognitive processing study with adolescents on health survey questions. Journal of LGBT Health Research. 2007;3(1):55Ã¢â¬â65.[PubMed] Clark, M. L. (2006). The Magnet Recognition Program and evidence-based practice. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing, 21, 186Ã¢â¬â189. Check Document Availability Bibliographic Links [Context Link] Greenhalgh, T. (2006). How to read a paper: The basics of evidence-based medicine(3rd ed.). Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishing. [Context Link] Institute of Medicine. (Ed.). (2000). To err is human: Building a safer system.Washington, DC: National Academies Press. [Context Link] Institute of Medicine (Ed.). (2001). Crossing the quality chasm: A new health system for the 21st century. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. [Context Link]
The Shawshank Redemption Essay Main character in the movie. Was wrongfully sent to prison for the murder of his wife. Andy did not commit the crime; he was simply at the murder scene in his car. He was going to kill them both but he was held back. Someone else killed his wife and her lover and Andy was blamed. -Ellis Ã¢â¬Å"RedÃ¢â¬ Redding- the man who can get you anything in prison. Red was AndyÃ¢â¬â¢s best friend and the only guilty man at Shawshank Prison. Red kept Andy sane for most of the movie by being his friend and getting him what he wants/needs. Warden Samuel Norton- Warden at Shawshank Prison; although he is the warden, he shows special interest towards Andy and uses him for his skills. -Tommy Williams- Young and fresh criminal who comes to Shawshank who knows the Identity of the real killer in AndyÃ¢â¬â¢s case. Tommy is assassinated because of his knowledge on the topic. -Brooks Hatlen- Old librarian. Is later released from prison. Not knowing what to do in life, Brooks chooses suicide. Wrongly convicted banker Andy Dufresne is sent to prison for killing his wife and her lover. When Andy gets to prison he learns the system and makes friends with Red, Red is the man that can get you anything in prison. Andy asks for a rock hammer as he is into geology and wants to make a chess board. Andy shows his knowledge of the law and money and helps Capt. Hadley with his money dilemma. The warden assigns Andy to the library to assist the librarian Brooks Hatlen. Andy soon becomes the wardenÃ¢â¬â¢s second hand man to do the wardenÃ¢â¬â¢s dirty financial work, which includes laundering money under the name Ã¢â¬Å"Randall StevensÃ¢â¬ . In 1954, Brooks is released from prison, unable to adjust to the outside world he hangs himself. Tommy Williams comes to Shawshank in 1965 for robbery. He becomes friends with Andy and Red. After Tommy hears about why Andy is here in prison he is shocked because he is proof that Andy did not commit the crime. Andy brings this information the warden, but the warden refuses to listen because if Andy is brought to justice and freed than the warden doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have someone like him to do his dirty work. The warden has Tommy shot and killed by Captain Hadley. Andy tells Red that if he is ever freed from the prison, that red should go to a specific hayfield near Buxton and look under a volcanic rock for a package. The next day at roll call, Andy is not present and his cell is empty. The warden gets so mad that he starts to destroy everything in the room and when he throws a rock at Raquel WelchÃ¢â¬â¢s poster, he finds a hidden pathway that Andy had created with his rock hammer over the last 20 years. Andy escaped from prison. After spending a good portion of his life in prison, Red is finally free. Red, like Brooks, canÃ¢â¬â¢t adapt to outside life. He remembered his promise to Andy and visits the specific spot that Andy told Red about. He finds some cash for a bus ticket to Zihuatenajo. Red breaks his parole and travels to Texas to cross the Mexican border. On a beach in Zihuatenajo, Red finds Andy, and they both are reunited and the movie ends. 1. Reliability- Reliability is the extent of how much you can count on one person or thing to get what is needed to be accomplished. Andy shows his reliability to the people of the prison, including administrators for his chance to get the upper hand so he can accomplish what he needs to do to get himself out of prison. 2. Validity- I think validity is how true something is, how just something is, or how important something is. Andy helps the prison workers with their taxes. His knowledge over the topic is tested and his validity is tested as well. 3. Cause and Effect- What happens and what effect comes from what happened. In The Shawshank Redemption cause and effect is very clear. From the time that Andy is trusted with finances and money laundering, the cause of his escape is planned. He wants to exploit the prison and by effect he can inherit the money under the fake identity. It is apparent in other times in the movie as well. Without the cause there would not be an effect. Beliefs- What a person holds dear to themselves as far as morals, faith, and their personal thoughts of how one should live their life. In The Shawshank Redemption, Red chastises Andy one day in the cafeteria for having hope. AndyÃ¢â¬â¢s own personal beliefs are always with him and by keeping those hopes he escapes the prison. 5. Hunting and Gathering- Getting what we want by our own will and actions and storing and releasing what we have wherever want. In The Shawshank Redemption, Andy takes pieces of the wall with him to the prison yards every day. He slowly empties his pockets on the prison yard and lets the rocks from the wall fall from him. 6. Personality- how a person is, what a person believes and how that belief shines to show what kind of person one is. In The Shawshank Redemption and in any other movie really, Personality is always present. AndyÃ¢â¬â¢s personality at first his quiet and he mostly keeps to himself. Even after making friends Andy is more of an Introvert than an Extrovert. 7. Status- A personÃ¢â¬â¢s social standing in society. A rank of sorts. AndyÃ¢â¬â¢s status in The Shawshank Redemption is changed from laundry duty to librarian to prison banker. Achieved status- what you do to get to where you are, how you achieved the status that you have. AndyÃ¢â¬â¢s status is achieved because of the skills that he has from his previous life. His achieved status in the end is a free man. Randall Stevens. 9. Social group- The people that you are with, your friends, your group. AndyÃ¢â¬â¢s social group in the story goes from being alone or just with Red, to having a whole group of friends and inmates. 10. Dyad- a group of 2 people, 2 friends or even 2 enemies. Andy and Red would be the only real Dyad in The Shawshank Redemption. The warden and captain Hadley would also be a dyad. 11. Authoritarianism- One person who is in control of a social group of groups. In The Shawshank Redemption, the warden is the authoritarian. His word goes and no one else can do or say anything about it. 12. Bisexuality- When a man or woman likes someone of the same sex but also likes someone of the opposite sex. Bisexuality is only present in the movie by Ã¢â¬Å"The SistersÃ¢â¬ . In the prison there are only men, and the sisters are prison rapists who rape men. 13. Organized crime- an organized process to get what one needs or wants. Red has a system of organized crime to get the people what they want, whether it is a pack of cigarettes or a rock hammer. 14. Retribution- Revenge or personal satisfaction by getting revenge of some sort. Andy gets his retribution by exploiting to the public what was really going on in Shawshank prison. 15. Rehabilitation- the process of being Ã¢â¬Å"fixedÃ¢â¬ to abide by societies laws or social rules. The entire prison system in The Shawshank Redemption is really just a form of rehabilitation by imprisoning people; the officials believe that they will be rehabilitated so that they can come into the public once again. 6. Profession- your skill of trade, the thing that you have over anyone else. AndyÃ¢â¬â¢s profession was a banker and even while he is in prison, the profession is still useful. Ã Wealth- how much money a person has, how rich or happy they are. AndyÃ¢â¬â¢s job for a while in the movie is to launder the money under an alias. Wealth is all that the warden seems to care about. 18. Power- how much say a person has, their voice is power and how much of the voice is power, is also power. The Warden lusts for power and wealth; ultimately, both things are what get him exploited and ultimately result in his suicide. 9. Proletarians- Workers that work for money, wage or contract workers. The warden hires second hand workers and works off of bribes so that he may receive his own money, he cuts the prisons budget in work. 20. Faith- your beliefs or how much you believe in the validity of your beliefs. Andy always keeps his faith in hope, and in the end it was the hope that drove him to leave. I actually liked this assignment. I have seen the movie The Shawshank Redemption quite a few times. I always just looked at the movie in a sense of drama and a good story. After looking at the terms itÃ¢â¬â¢s easier to see how much sociology really affects anything. In a prison system, sociology is very present and by knowing certain terms and sociological information, you can really get something out of a movie that you could not get otherwise. Sociology is present in almost every movie as there is some kind of term present that has a better underlying meaning than what is just presented over the surface. Sometimes just by knowing what kind of person a character is, itÃ¢â¬â¢s easy to tell what categories of sociology they can fit under. I think sociology and this assignment are very relevant to The Shawshank Redemption in a sense that the movie is not action based. There is not a lot of action or special affects of computer graphics. The movie is all story and dialogue. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s easier, yet harder to sense sociological terms in the dialogue as you are limited by certain kind of sociological group. I think the movie seems very different when it is viewed this way. I have seen this movie well over twenty times and I havenÃ¢â¬â¢t really looked at the movie in this way. I have learned quite a lot this semester and more importantly I believe they are things that I will remember. In many classes, there arenÃ¢â¬â¢t many things that students take with them, with this class, I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t just get a grade, I got a basis to which I can view many things at different angles just by analyzing and observing what and how people do or say what they do or say. How people act in a certain group compared to how they act online or with just a few close friends. The information that was taught in this class can be readily used in everyday life compared to some classes where things are taught that one wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t use so much. I enjoyed this class very much.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
A Study On Computer Aided Design Before the 1070s, nearly every drawing produced in the world done with pencil or ink on paper. Minor changes require erasing and redrawing while major changes often meant recreating the drawing from the scratch. A change in a drawing will affect the other documents and all of these changes and recognition are done manually which is time consuming (iBM.com, 2003). The introduction of Computer Aided Design (CAD) then makes a change in the way of producing design. CAD is a software application which uses the computer technology in the process of design and design-documentation. Basically, CAD software is used to design curves and figures in two-dimensional (2D) space, curves, surfaces and solids in three-dimensional (3D) objects. CAD software enables the user to produce better streamlining design, drafting, and documentation and facilitate manufacturing process. It provides output in the form of electronic files and allows the users to get printing copy. CAD software is often used in construction, manufacturing and other industries because it can bring economy to the processes by providing convenience in conveying information in technical and engineering drawings. Examples of information which can be conveyed are materials, processes, dimensions and tolerance. The software helps to produce drafting and design for all types of buildings such as residential houses, hospitals and factories. Besides, the software is also used throughout the engineering process to produce conceptual design and layout for the products and define the strength and dynamic analysis of manufacturing components. There are many CAD software producers such as AutoCAD, Autodesk Inventor, Pro-E Wildfire, Catia and many. CAD ORIGIN/ TERMINOLOGY There are many essential synonymous terms in CAD software. It is sometimes translated as computer-assisted, computer-aided drafting, or a similar phrase. CADD (Computer Aided Design and Drafting) and CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) are other related acronyms. All of these terms have subtle differences in meaning and each is used for different purpose. CAD HISTORY Dr Patrick J. Hanratty developed the first commercial numerical-control programming system in the year 1957. He had greatly contributed to the field of CAD design and manufacturing and he was known as the Father of CAD. In year 1960, Ivan Sutherland produced a project called SKETCHPAD as the first step to CAD industry. SKETCHPAD allowed the designer to interact with computer graphically where the design can be fed into the computer by using a light pen to draw on a monitor. Thus, making it as an indispensable feature of modern CAD software. The first commercial applications of CAD were in large companies in the automotive and aerospace industries as well as in electronics. This was due to only large corporations could afford the computers capable of performing the calculations. In year 1964, Dr Patrick J. Hanratty had utilised Design Augmented by Computer (DAC-1) in his company projects. In year 1971, UNISURF was developed by Pierre BÃ ©zier at Renault. It was a pioneering surface CAD system for car body design and tooling. The founding of Manufacturing and Consulting Services Inc. (MSC) in year 1971 by Dr Patrick J. Hanratty enhanced the development of CAD. He then supplied the codes to many companies such as Control Data, Autotrol, Garber, Calma and many. The application of CAD expanded gradually when computer became affordable. The development of CAD software for personal desktop computers was the momentum for almost universal application in all areas of construction. Key points in the 1960s and 1970s such as IBM, Intergraph and Intergraph IGDS became the foundation of CAD systems. Since then, the implementation of CAD had evolved dramatically. 2D graphic was design with CAD software initially in the 1970s and limited to producing drawings similar to hand-drafted drawings. Variety applications of CAD were allowed when programming and computer hardware became advanced. In year 1982, Autodesk was founded by John Walker which then led to the 2D system AutoCAD. In year 1988, Pro/Engineer was released and required greater usages of feature based modelling methods. The development of graphics engines ShapeData and ACIS at the end of the 1980s inspired by the work of Ian Braid. The inspiration then led to the release of SolidWorks in year 1995 and SolidEdge in year 1996. Today, in 21st century, there are many CAD software products in the market. The famous CAD software producers are Autodesk, PTC, UGS Corp and many. Generally, the package of CAD software can be classified into 3 types, there are 2D drafting systems, mid-range 3D solid feature modellers and high-end 3D hybrid systems. CAD DEVELOPMENT IN MALAYSIA In Malaysia, CAD software has been on the sell since the 1980s. In the mid 1990s, the applications of sophisticated CAD tools with 3D modelling and coloured graphics enhancements had become more common. Since then, the usage of CAD has impacted the professional practice, education and the research associated with architecture tremendously. In the present time, CAD software including CAM is now widely accepted and used throughout the industry. The technology moves from costly workstations to off-the-shelf computers. 3D modelling has become a norm and it can be found even in applications for the wider industry such as house furnishing and garden planning. As the usage of CAD has become part and parcel of the daily running of architecture firms, higher-learning institutions such as universities and colleges have produced great efforts in preparing the built environment market with workforce that is equipped with the essential skills and ability to operate CAD. CAD APPLICATIONS CAD is used to design, develop and optimize products, which can be goods used by end consumers or intermediate goods used in other products. For example, buildings, mechanical and engineering tools, vehicle and transportation and many other product designs. In the field of engineering, CAD allows design and drafting of tools and machinery which are used in the manufacture components. Besides, detailed engineering of 3D models and 2D drawings of physical components can be generated easily by applying CAD. In the field of building architecture, CAD has reduced the need for manual drawing. CAD helps to generate all particulars of a building such as floor plans, sections, elevations, perspectives views and model renderings in a shorter time. The software allows drafting and design of all types of buildings. Besides designing, developing and optimizing products in building and engineering, CAD is also used for business purpose such as the followings: Testing on Conceptual Products CAD eliminates the need to test all of the product design physically. Instead of conducting physically testing, the developers can run virtual tests using CAD which can simulate the same condition. The application of virtual tests is often adopted in the aeronautical company which its testing can be ruinously time consuming and expensive. Idea Generation CAD allows flexible process of idea generation when the limiting factor of prototype manufacture is removed. The enterprises, both employees and potential customers are exposed to more open and new ideas and suggestions. The suggestions for new products then can be tested quickly at a lower cost. Augmentation CAD allows slight improvement on new product designs instantly. It is useful in investigating possible improvements to existing products. Market Testing CAD allows earlier process of market testing because virtual new products can be presented more quickly than physical prototypes and feedback can be obtained instantly. CAD can also be applied in the field of medical to manipulate medical images such as digital x-ray image (DICOM). The application of CAD in the presentation of medical images is still new compared to CAD widely used in the fields that involve with designing of the manufacturing industry products and construction field. CAD PRINCIPAL CAD is one of the many tools most used by engineers and designers. 3D Wire Frame is an extension of 2D drafting. Basically, it possesses similar fashion to the 2D system. Its final product does not have mass properties. Besides, there is no feature directly added to it such as holes. 3D Dumb Solids possesses similar fashion to the way of creating the real world object. This technology has been incorporate into programs such as AutoCAD and Cadkey 19. The principal provides draft views which can be easily generated from the models. However, the changes can only be done by deleting the object or feature and start over. Besides, its assemblies do not include tools which allow motion. 3D Parametric solid modeliling allows the operator to use what is referred to as design intent. Any future modifications to the design will depend on the original part. It may be simple, difficult or nearly impossible. This technology has been incorporate into programs such as Alibre Design, TopSolid, SolidWorks and Solid Edge. KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL COMPETENCIES FOR CAD According to Duan (2006) study, CAD and design engineering users require 7 categories of skills and knowledge as the followings: General knowledge and skills English writing and speaking Communication Critical thinking Problem solving Mathematics and science skills. Interpersonal skills Basic drafting knowledge and skills Basic drafting Descriptive geometry Technical standards Coordinate systems Multiview drawings Isometric drawings Geometric dimensioning and tolerance Basic mechanical drafting Basic architectural drafting Basic civil drafting Computer knowledge and skills Computer fundamentals Computer file management Word processing Computer software Spreadsheets Basic application of internet Basic programming CAD knowledge and skills Major CAD software CAD 2D drawings CAD 3D modelling Basic CAD LISP Programming CAD design project Custimization of CAD program Basic engineering analysis and technical knowledge and skills Special knowledge and skills Design application and practices Special projects in the field Marketing and sales Basic knowledge of laws Troubleshooting skills Teamwork Leadership skills ADVANTAGES OF CAD CAD software offers several advantages which attracts many industry players. Basically, it offers benefits which then can lead to time and cost saving. Both cost and time saving are important especially in the world of business because in the view of commercial man, time is money. First of all, the software has become an important technology in ensuring lower product development costs. Before the 1070s, nearly every drawing produced in the world done with pencil or ink on paper and any change requires erasing and redrawing which will produce waste. CAD software enables the designers to develop their work on screen and allows future editing. Thus, it brings benefits in cost saving instead of redrawing due to minor changes. Besides, the software also ensures short design cycle as it eliminates the needs to redraw when minor changes happen, it brings benefits in time saving. Both cost and time saving in product development can also be achieved by eliminating the need to test all of the product design physically. Instead of conducting physically testing, the developers can run virtual tests using CAD which can simulate the same condition. The application of virtual tests is often adopted in the aeronautical company which its testing can be ruinously time consuming and expensive. Cost saving can be achieved by reducing the number of designers. By using CAD, the professional designers can do the designing work faster and eliminate the need of additional designers. Besides, cost saving also takes place when CAD software offers better and standardised drawings which then facilitate better communications. Moreover, CAD allows quickly and easy design alteration which also lead to faster product development. Faster product development then will lead to increase in productivity of the designer. The software allows understanding on how the actual product works by giving animation to the product so that immediately modifications can be made if required. CAD software helps the designer in synthesizing, analysing and documenting the design. Thus, the productivity of the designer can be improved due to fast designing, low designing cost and shorter completion times. In addition, saving in time and cost does not affect the quality of the design. In fact, CAD can improve the design quality because large number of tools is offered by the software which assists investigation and analysis of the proposed design. Beside, CAD also offers greater accuracy and errors are reduced to give a much better design. This better design can help to carry out faster manufacturing and reduce wastage due to faulty design. DISADVANTAGES OF CAD Although most of the users understand on the advantages brought by CAD, in the mean time, it comes with several disadvantages that the engineer or entrepreneur must understand. These advantages may affect the approach that getting a product on the market. The application of CAD software requires training among the users. This will then costs additional money in the staff training. Besides, its application requires expensive start up costs including hardware, software and training. Computer technology used in CAD is expensive to implement and support the software. Besides, the technology is not constant as new hardware and software programs constantly come on the market and therefore, the users need to keep up with these changes for compatibility reasons. Risk of technology failure must be taken into consideration when implementing CAD as computer used may break down. It then affects the progress of product development which is not favoured in a strict production schedule. The risk is highest when the company relies on assembly-line structure as failure will affect all points of production instead of an isolated production area. Besides, when there break down in computer, all the data saved including CAD copy will be lost. SUMMARY Before the 1070s, all of the design and drawings are produced manually which is time consuming. Thus, the introduction of Computer Aided Design (CAD) has made a change in the way of producing design. CAD is a software application which uses the computer technology in the process of design to produce two-dimensional (2D) space, curves, surfaces and solids in three-dimensional (3D) objects. It is often used in construction, manufacturing and other industries such as the engineering process to produce conceptual design and layout for the products and define the strength and dynamic analysis of manufacturing components. CAD brings advantages to the users, in the mean time, it also brings limitation or draw back. Basically, cost and time saving are the main advantages as design and drawings can be produced faster than manually. However, when there is a technology failure especially computer, it will affect the production line and cause dalay. Therefore, wise decision must be made when adopting CAD in product development and it must take into consideration of factors such as time and cost of the technology transfer as well as the expertise available.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Over one billion people do not have access to clean water and less than 10% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population receive a treated water supply. I find this intriguing; as well as being essential to preserving life, water contributes to our lifestyle in so many ways, from the generation of steam for industrial use and electricity generation to the foods we eat. Today chemical engineers face the challenge of ensuring water is purified as well as finding solutions to the wasting of this precious resource. I am particularly interested in the process of water purification from subsurface aquifers and surface sources, such as lakes and rivers, to produce portable drinking water. The reason that this sector has sparked a significant interest is because I come from Somalia, a country where clean water is so difficult to obtain. Chemical engineering consolidates maths and chemistry, which is one of the main reasons I was first attracted to studying it. Mathematics has helped me approach problems in an analytical and rigorous way, formulating theories and applying them to solve problems. I particularly...
Friday, July 19, 2019
Antigone Must Challenge Creon in Antigone Ã In his "Funeral Oration" Pericles, Athens's leader in their war with other city-states, rallies the patriotism of his people by reminding them of the things they value. He encourages a sense of duty to Athens even to the point of self-sacrifice. He glorifies the free and democratic Athenian way of life and extravagantly praises those willing to die for it. In Antigone, Creon, Thebes's leader in their recent civil war, also must rally the patriotism of his people. While he, too, praises the loyalty of his people, he does two other things to rally the citizens: he emphasizes his own qualifications for leadership, and he reminds them what happens to traitors. Ã Ã Ã Creon speaks to his people at the beginning of Antigone because he is now the only ruler of Thebes, and he wants them to be loyal to him. He knows there's a chance they might not have faith in him because in Oedipus the King he claimed to be content to leave the active leadership to others. Also, he's not next in line to be the king after Laius, the late, beloved king. Even more important is the fact that Laius's grandchildren, Oedipus's sons Eteocles and Polynices, ended up on opposite sides of a war over Thebes. Some Thebans were probably loyal to Eteocles, but others may have been sympathetic to Polynices, who tried to take the throne away from his brother. Now Creon, the new leader, will have the best chance for success if he gets the people to forget about Oedipus and the terrible time of his rule, and about Oedipus's sons and the rebellion that divided their country. Although he does praise the Thebans for respecting the royal house of Laius, saying, "your loyalty was unshakable" (line 187), he wants them to reali... ...ells trouble for the city's future and for his own success. Sometimes he sounds harsher and more threatening than Pericles did, but the problem of unifying people after a war between brothers is more difficult than unifying people to fight outsiders (which is what Pericles had to do). After all, Pericles can praise all the Athenians who died for their city's sake in the Peloponnesian War, but Creon can't praise all the Thebans who died in this battle. His idea for unifying Theban citizens behind him is to focus attention on himself as an example of everything they admire, and to show them the terrible consequences for disloyalty. Given the situation, I see this as an admirable goal, but I can also see why it's inevitable that Antigone, the strong-minded daughter of Oedipus and the sister of Polynices, will see Creon as arrogant and will challenge his rule. Ã Ã
The Challenge of Defining a Single Ã¢â¬Å"Multicultural EducationÃ¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As stated in the first paragraph of this article, Ã¢â¬Å"Multicultural education has been transformed, refocused, reconceptualized, and in a constant state of evolution both in theory and in practice.Ã¢â¬ Multicultural education is always changing. Culture is something that changes on a day-to-day basis. The way our society changes is no oneÃ¢â¬â¢s hands, but our own. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Multicultural education can be something that is as simple as a change in the curriculum adding new and diverse materials (2nd paragraph). As the world changes our ability to learn should grow. New things happen every day and the only way we can grow from these things is to open our eyes and realize what is going on. Society tackles many different things each day and we never know whatÃ¢â¬â¢s going to happen until after it does. Entering new things into the curriculum based on current issues is a positive thing in my eyes. Adding to and enhancing the curriculum adds more knowledge to our multicultural views. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the third paragraph of this article it states that, Ã¢â¬Å"Every student must have an equal opportunity to achieve to her or his full potential.Ã¢â¬ I agree with this statement fully. If a student is given the opportunity to put his or her all into their work then their work is at its potential. Many teachers prohibit this from happening by picking favorites and underestimating ...
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Week 4 Assignment: Descriptive Essay John Barkle IV ENG 121 English Composition I Instructor: Antoinette Oesterlein 11/24/12 It is a very merry Christmas. It's my favorite time of year. For some people, Christmas lasts one day. For me it starts the week before Thanksgiving and last the whole month long. I have been celebrating month long Christmases since I was a little boy. My family owns 5 Christmas tree lots, and I have the pleasure of working on our main lot; Deejohn's Christmas Trees in San Mateo.This paper w ill discuss the sites, sounds, and smells of the Christmas tree lot, and how there is no place that says Christmas like a real Christmas tree lot. (Thesis) The first thing you notice is the lights. Most every Christmas tree lot uses the same types of lights. The temporary lighting system uses evenly spaced bare light bulbs strung methodically above each row of trees. This creates an unmistakeable pattern of lights that screams Christmas tree lot.Maybe it is just because I a m so attuned to the business, but I can recognize a Christmas tree lot from a mile away because the way the lights look from a distance is so distinct. Most people probably do not think about it, but next time you are out during the season, keep an eye off into the distance while you drive down the street. I am sure you will understand what I am talking about once you start to look for it. Of course the most distinctive feature of a Christmas tree lot is the trees. We display our trees all in a row,side by side, and sorted by height.As you walk on the lot you notice the trees all grouped together like a little green forest amongst the urban background. Something about the way the trees are arranged in even straight rows, make the little ones want to play hide and seek. Almost every kid who comes on the lot ends up hiding in the trees. Of course every one decorates the place with bright red, green, gold, and silver Christmas ornaments. We have a 5 foot tall inflatable Santa. Standing next to Santa are two 3 feet tall elves, all dress in holiday green and red, with their pointy green elf shoes and red jingle bell hats.The most famous reindeer of all Rudolph the Red Nose reindeer stands with Santa and his elves. One thing that is unmistakable about a real Christmas tree lot is the smell of fresh cut fir trees. One thing you can not get away from on our Christmas tree lot is the music. As I sit and write this essay, I am listening to Bing Crosby singing I'll be home for Christmas over the loud speakers outside the trailer. On our tree lot there is always Christmas music playing. From Rudolph the Red Nose Reindeer, to The Little Drummer Boy, Christmas music is playing from open to close.To be honest, we all get a little tired of it near the end of the season, but for our customers, it would just not be the same experience with out hot apple cider and Christmas Carols. I can not count the number of times I caught myself humming I'm Dreaming of a White Christmas In J uly. Another sound you hear on the lot all the time is the sound of laughter. Children dart between the rows(even though we tell them to walk for their safety) and giggle when they get Ã¢â¬Å"foundÃ¢â¬ by their siblings and parents. For the most part, a Christmas Tree lot is the happiest place on Earth.There is something about the experience that just lends itself to good cheer. This is the one time of year Mom gets to be as picky as she wants, while Dad just sits back and says Ã¢â¬Å"Yes dear it is a beautiful tree, I think the your mother is going to love it. Ã¢â¬ Of course Dad always glances at me, rolls his eyes and shrugs as if to say: Ã¢â¬Å"What can I do? It's Christmas! Ã¢â¬ Almost everyone who comes on the tree lot comments on the fresh smell of pine, and how wonderful it is. What most people realize is there is no pine on our tree lot. All of our trees are Firs.We have Noble Fir, Douglas Fir, and Grand Fir and each has a distinctive smell. The noble fir smells lik e a traditional Christmas tree. The Noble fir smell is the smell most people relate to Christmas trees. The smell of our Douglas Firs is overpowered by the Noble and Grand firs on the lot, but when you take them home they can really perk up your lace with the smell of Christmas. My favorite tree for smell is the Grand Firs. The Grand fir has a vibrant green needle with a silver gray back. The grand fir has a powerful and pungent oil, and it has a vibrant smell that is unmatched by any other live tree I have experienced.Just rubbing a branch on your skin or clothes can leaving you smelling festive for hours. Working on a Christmas tree lot is a dirty business, but I have come home from many another job smelling much worse than I do at the end of a long day on the lot. The sights and smells of Christmas come and go, but the music stays with me the whole year round. Christmas is one time of year that brings families separated by states and nations back together; even if only for a shor t time, and the Christmas Tree Lot seems to be one experience they all seem to agree is positive and fun.From the delicious cinnamon spiced hot apple cider, the pungent aroma of fresh cut fir trees, and the joyous laughter of a game of hide and seek in the trees, a visit to the tree lot is loved and remembered by all. Come visit us, and I bet you will find yourself humming Jingle Bells or Joy to the World all the way home. Whatever you do, don't forget to grab a red and white stripped peppermint candy cane on your way out.
Wednesday, July 17, 2019
CHAPTER ONE 1 INTRODUCTION 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF TANZANIA INVESTMENT concentrate (TIC) Tanzania garmenting Centre (TIC) is the primary style of the constitution-making relation of Tanzania to coordinate, countenance, promote and facilitate enthronisation in Tanzania and to advise the G e trulywherenment on deckiture related matters. TIC is a focal point for investors. It is the first point of think for the po tennertial investors it is a unity forbear facilitative centre for all investors, salty in the work of trade Tanzania as an coronation destination.TIC was imbeded in 1997 by the Tanzania enthr adeptment Act No. 26 of 1997 to be the primary agency of brass to coordinate, encourage, promote and facilitate investiture in Tanzania and to advise the government activity in investing related matters all(prenominal) Government departments and agencies argon gather upd by law to gather fully with TIC in facilitating investors. As a primary agency of the Government in all enthronization matters, TIC is charged with the chase give ways- Assist in establishment of enterprises e. g. ncorporation of enterprises let incumbent licenses, utilization permits, visas, approvals, facilities or service Sort out all administrative barriers confronting several(prenominal)(prenominal) local anaesthetic and unconnected investitures publicize two abroad and local investing activities Secure investment sites and assist investors to establish EPZ projects Grant Certificates of Incentives, investment guarantees and register engine room agreements for all investments, which a re over and above US $ 300,000 and 100,000 for orthogonal and local investment respectively Provide and b ar up to date entropy on existing investment opportunities, returnss or incentives in stock(predicate) to investors and Assist all investors whether or non registered by TIC. TIC headquarters is in Dar es Salaam, but has established Zonal office s in Kilimanjaro, Mwanza and Mbeya constituents in align to assist Investors who argon based in nearby regions to approach TIC services without necessarily traveling to Dar es Salaam.The Zonal offices ar responsible in assisting investors to obtain all pertinent permits, approvals and licenses they require in aver to set up their business enterprisees. In order to streng then and find haste facilitation services, ten (10) Senior Officers from Government or its Executive Agencies sport been permanently stativirtuosod at TIC to swear out investors under 1 roof. curtly these officers include those from- Minis smack of Land, Ho victimisation and Human resolving power phylogeny Tanzania Revenue Authority (TRA) in-migration Department Ministry of Labor, Employment and Youth training (Labor Department) Ministry of Industry, Trade and Marketing ( assumeorate Trade) Business fitting & Licensing Agency (BRELA).? 2 BACKGROUND OF THE businessFDI has been one of the prin cipal beneficiaries of the liberalization of crownwork flows over recent decades and now constitutes the learn spring of capital letter inflow for numerous Afri backside countries, including whatever low-in roll in the hay ones bid Tanzania. Economies argon often considered less vulner open to out-of-door financing difficulties when period account deficits be financed more often than non by FDI inflows, rather than debt-creating capital flows. There is no denying the niftyness of FDI inflows both for their contribution to sustaining current account imbalances in countries and for their contribution to broader sparing incr tranquillise, by scientific spillovers and competition personal sums.Recent economic reports repoint that Tanzania lags tin neighbors Kenya, Democratic republic of Congo, Zambia and to a fault Madagascar in its ability to attract exotic investors. A ccording to a top economic official, the failure to execute pro-business reforms is ke eping expressionive contrary investors away from Tanzania. (Konye Obaji Ori, Afrik. com, Thursday September, 2008). The foreman Executive Officer of the Tanzania investment Centre, Mr Emmanuel Ole Naiko, state even countries with less attractive opportunities and re salutes were receiving to a great close foreign show investment because the e perseveranceation of politicking and interdict public sen convictionnts against foreign investors in Tanzania were among circumstanceors impeding the inflow of investments in the boorish.In recent years, the flow of FDI has been steady growing. From 2004 to 2005, the inflow grew by 29 percentage to reach US $ 916 billion). During the said(prenominal) Tanzania attracted US $ 330. 6 million. To en genuine maximum benefit to the parsimony, say-so factors strikeing FDI flow should be look fored periodically. (Tanzania investing Report, BOT, 2006). A large property of the FDI flow into Tanzania has increased from 552 million US Do llars in 2006 to 600 million US Dollars in 2008, ranking the verdant among the top ten recipients in Africa. Given its dominance in financial globalization and the potential relate to the economies, FDI tend to pose various challenges to man-to-man recipient countries.For example monitoring and military positioning of the inflows, primary(prenominal)taining macroeconomics stability, and undertaking institutional and constitution reforms for the social occasion or realizing optimal benefits from the inflows. These challenges obligates Tanzania to increase readiness to compete interms of attracting investments, gaining global market sh atomic number 18s and meliorate social economic welfargon. thus the main objective of TIC is to facilitate enthronisation for topic harvest-feast by enhancing an environment semiconductive for business and entrepreneurship growth hence attracting FDI inflows. 0. affirmation OF THE PROBLEM For the prehistorical two decades, Tanzania ha d been conceiving some(prenominal) efforts to attract in discriminate Direct investiture.major(ip) polity and structural reforms carried out since 1980s played signifi last outt role in improving the investment environment in the awkward. These efforts take resolving powered into increase in FDI inflows into the uncouth. nonetheless the increase in FDI and related investment posed a need to eyeshade out potential factors that induce the flow of FDI and should be emphases in this issue. The small come up of investors in the field is usually wreakd to weak economic performance. So it is all-important(prenominal) to identify factors that move these investors non to invest in the artless. It is as well important to recognize the mixture of incontrovertible and negative essences of FDI pass on into the country.The research worker give label ways which smoke be utilise to maximise the issuances of FDI hence devolveing to sparing growth. Therefore the aim o f this mull over is to identify and appreciate the potential factors that simulate the flow of FDI into our country. 1. 4 explore OBJECTIVE 1. 4. 1 frequent Objective. To identify and evaluate the potential factors that affect the inflow of FDI in Tanzania so that to maximize the frames of FDI hence leading to the growth of economy. 1. 4. 2 Specific Objectives To identify and evaluate the sources of FDI To disassemble the role of FDI as a source of economic festering To analyze the effects of FDI in the troops country and how this dismiss be assertled. 1. 5 inquiry QUESTIONS 1. 5. General Questions What ar the Potential Factors That pretend FDI inflows? 1. 5. 2 Specific Questions 1) Will policy dance steps lead to increase/decrease in FDI inflows? 2) What provide happen is some companies with foreign ownership notice offshore accounts, from which their debt serve is made directly, thus leading to unfathomable outflow? 3) What policy measures to be interpreted as FDI inflow into the country come from different countries with different investment require hence having different unavoidablenesss? 4) What is the effect of handiness of passing educated and skilled labor in FDI Inflows? 5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH 1. To the Target GovernmentThe debate go forth provide learning for evolution policies on investment promotion and endning on future investment strategies. excessively it provide armed service in improving the necessary environment for attracting FDI inflows in the country. 2. To Future seekers To help differentwise research workers to conduct future paper on the same conundrum given the gaps this top executive be encountered by the research worker. besides it washbowl be apply as reference for literature re put one acrosss on the same business in other areas relating with FDI. 1. 6. 3 To the searcher 1) The study is the partial fulfilment of the requirements for Post Graduate Diploma in Financial Manage ment to be awarded by the set up of finance Management. IFM) 2) The tec result gain confidence to conduct other research Studies independently at his places of work as to solve want and lilliputian term problems due(p) to widened ability in writing and reporting skills. 1. 6. 4 To Investors The study lead be of much importance to local and foreign investors, policy urinaters, donors, academicians as well it allow for be a useful source of learning just close to the factors that determine FDI inflow in the country. 1. 6. 5 Reference Period The study conducted whitethorn be used in the glide slope three (3) years. 1. 7 SCOPE OF THE count The study is intended to provide information on the potential factors that affect FDI inflow as well as bring out investors perception of the economy and business environment ranging from macroeconomic situation, pedestal, financial nerve and labour factors.The research leave be conducted in Dar es Salaam region at TIC Headquarters a nd forget call for approximately two (2) months. The issues to be study here are the potential factors that affect the FDI inflows, the sources of FDI into the country and the doctor of FDI to the country both negatively and positively. 8. GAPS TO BE FILLED 1) FDI by locally owned companies has to be analyse a give care, as some records give tongue ton by the past police watch overives are for the fully owned by foreigners or partially. 2) To fit information on the previously done research on the gap trying to have a census on the set of potential factors affecting FDI inflows. 3) The study allow try to overcome or at to the last item reduce the gap as line above. 9. CONCEPTUAL MODELTanzania benefits from FDI because these flows augment the limited Domestic savings and bring with it finance, managerial skills, technology, marketing expertise and market links. however juvenile opportunities to a fault bring risks that should be managed properly, especially in the topic of policy reforms e. t. c. 10. ASSUMPTION OF THE STUDY The detective anticipates the care assumption in the research go- 1. 10. 1 Time It is assumed that the cartridge clip get out be equal to eff this study. The time given is not sufficient to make the detective to make a comprehensive study. This implies that the police detective will panorama difficulties in gathering all the important information for digest. 1. 10. 2 Respondents It is assumed that some of the answerings will cooperate.Some doents will also be a problem in the study this is because of their personal concern and might choose to be untruthful. Also on that point whitethorn be a problem of absence of respondents. 1. 10. 3 Access to Records A problem of fully access to some documents may pose a problem as some documents are termed as very confidential and thus bumnot be accessed by anybody especially the outsider. 1. 10. 4 coin It is assumed that the funds will unfold what is on the budge t. and any surplus costs outside the budgeted one may pose as a problem as there will be no surplus funds from my sponsor. soreness in conducting research may lead to some delays hence increase in cost of the study.CHAPTER TWO 2. 0 publications REVIEW 2. 1 INTRODUCTION many an(prenominal) researcher has been conducted regarding the analyses of the major determinants of FDI flows but did not come to census on what send away be specified as a set of major determinants of FDI inflows, as this varies from one country to another and from one troops to another. (World Investment Report, 2008). The flow of FDI to different countries is unequal. The major sources and destination of FDI have been the USA, the europiuman Union, and Japan. Europe is currently the largest recipient and source of FDI. Africa has been receiving the lowest share of global FDI despite efforts by Afri stick out ountries to attract it. even the humour has change over the past a couple of(prenominal) years . The growth of subject field output has been greater that that of the population for the first time in years. (Recep Kok et al, Analyses of FDI Determinants in growing Countries, ledger of neighborly stintings, Volume 36 1/2 2009 PP105 123). Tanzania received US $ 600 million in 2008 and became the third largest recipient of FDI in SADCC region. However Tanzania has an upside potential to attract more than FDI because of its continued policy-making stability, promising prospect in the mining and biogas, and tourism. (World Investment Report, 2008). 1 Meaning and Overview of FDI in TanzaniaRecep Kok et al, defines impertinent Direct Investment is as a effort where a resident entity in one economy acquires lasting interest in an enterprise in another countrys economy with significant degree of persuade. The World Investment Report (WIR) 2008, which was launched by the Secretary General of UNCTAD Dr. Panithpakdi, indicates that the FDI inflow in Africa has recorded an impre ssive performance. It shows that FDI on the holy has hit a record and that Africa has the amplyest returns on Investment. The Government has continued to improve the countrys investment climate, by introducing different reforms which will be of interest to investors. However as everyone sees, the foreign investment is gameyly concentrated in some separate of Tanzania, in the big cities like Dar Es-Salaam, Mbeya, Arusha e. t. c.Also it is concentrated in the mining areas like Geita, Kahama, Nyamongo, and Tulawaka. In areas where the only product obtained there is agriculture, there are no or few investments. (Tanzania Investment Report, 2006). FDI has some components which are- 1) Direct Equity Investment 2) retain earnings attributable to non-residents 3) Long-term shareholders and inter-company loans 4) short-term shareholders and inter-company loans and 5) Suppliers credits from related companies. The surge of interest in FDI and multi study companies has been so high that in Tanzania there has been a high expectation in terms of what the companies can do and generally on the exploitation effects of FDI.While FDI can, indeed, chip in to national economic and social development in many ways, the engagement and performance of nationalated actors are very crucial. The effect of FDI largely depends on the policies of the host country. This goes beyond the mere(prenominal) liberalization of economies. Deliberate measures to develop merciful capital and physical and social infrastructure can also be precious ways to enhance the quality of FDI that countries can attract. Tanzania is reservation major efforts to increase FDI inflow by improving the investment climate. It has embarked on wide-ranging policy, policy-making and institutional reforms aimed at reducing (and if possible removing) barriers to entry of foreign capital, particularly FDI.Trade investment liberalization, privatization and the origin of various incentives for foreign investment h ave received broad attention of the regime. regional economic consolidation bodies and free raft zones have been created to enlarge the size of markets and keep abreast common investment regimes at sub-regional and regional levels. These efforts are based on lore that FDI can stimulate economic growth, supply new employment opportunities, promote enthrall of new technologies and contribute to environmental sustainability in the region. (Oyeyinka, 2004) 2 FDI Inflow and Prospect for Tanzania Tanzanians inappropriate Direct Investment has increased by nearly 15Percent in 2008, mainly due to investment in natural resources geographic expedition projects already in operation. Tanzania has ranked number 12 among major FDI receiver African countries afterwards Nigeria, Egypt, Morocco, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Algeria and Tunisia. new(prenominal) countries forwards of Tanzania are Madagascar, Zambia, Ghana, DRC and Kenya. (World Investment Report, 2008). However, there is no r eason why on ground countries like Zambia and Madgascar should surpass Tanzania, particularly when one looks at the natural resources endowments the country enjoys. Tanzanias problem has been engagement in too many debates, which inhibited some the making of quick and timely endings.Giving the example of a country like Mozambique, although it was devastated by the war, had managed to successfully develop its burn mines go forth Tanzanians to debate on who should develop Mchuchuma coal or Liganga iron ore deposits. Since early 1986, The Government of Tanzania, with determination, launched a comprehensive economic reforms and stabilisation curriculum. In pursuit of this, agricultural marketing has been liberalized, foreign veerd controls have been lifted, value deregulated, heighten buck private empyrean interestingness in the economy through with(predicate) privatization programme and the new investment code go competitive incentives has been in place. These comprehensive economic reforms have resulted into improved competitiveness, lower tariffs, change magnitude levels of foreign investment in trade, improved key economic indicators and rapid integration into world markets.To this end, the Government is currently embarking on a strenuous exercise to push its institutions and bring them at par with foreign standards. The expectation is to enhance the countrys competitive position for investment flows bound for the region and meet the challenges of globalization. Table 1GDP Snapshot for 2004 GPD US $ 8. 8bn GPD per Capita USD $ 240 GPD emersion 4. 3% Agriculture foster Added 47. 6% Industry Value Added 14. % Services Value Added 38. 0% microbe World assert Tanzanias 15 years info track record of largely satisfactory reforms has merge a favorable macroeconomic environment, which makes it one of the main incentives for foreign investor. crop per capita is pass judgment to increase by 3. 4% mingled with 2004 and 2009. (Tanzania Inve stors Guide, 2002 and beyond). Table 2FDI Inflows, 2004 2007 Year US $ mn 2004 183. 3 2005 350. 5 2006 522 2007 600 mention intrust of TanzaniaAn increase in contrasted Direct Investment, apparently, indicates that the countrys investment environment has change magnitudely improved in the manner that investors are now able to predict more precisely sugar to be accrued from their investment. Table 3 TIC Approval of orthogonal Investment 1990 2000 category US $ mn 1990 47. 25 1991 471. 49 1992 204. 9 1993 527. 05 1994 302. 99 1995 263. 42 1996 467. 85 1997 384. 9 1998 1464. 69 1999 1211. 2000 767. 77 Source Tanzania Investment Centre 2. POTENTIAL FACTORS THAT rive FDI The literature convocations the factors that attract foreign investment into two groups external push factors and domestic pull factors. Among the pull factors are a. Economic and political reforms that boost confidence in the economy b. Reforms much(prenominal) as debt restructuring which ea se the long-run foreign central coldness and therefore enhance the sustainability of foreign exchange inflows c. Liberalization of foreign exchange flows (both current and capital) in the balance of payments d.Simplication of red-tape requirements for direct and portfolio investment and liberalization of restrictions on private sector borrowing from a broad e. macroeconomic factors, these are fiscal policy, monetary policy, government stability, government spending regulatory ring work, state intervention in private business, and financial sector stability. The government has to have a clear look on these factors as they affect investors operations f. The infrastructure and public services including in disgrace transport, ports, electrical energy and water supply, postal services, telecommunications, customs services, immigration facilities, municipal services, banking services and credit rating g.Diverse factors including corruption, internal security, domestic political scenari o, regional political scenario, domestic economic situation, global economic situation and market expansion h. Governance factors that include regional trade integration, trade policy, investment incentives, bureaucracy, and tax revenue composeion efficiency, effectiveness of legal law, land law and administration and speed of decision making i. Inflation, approachability of business credit, interest rate, depreciation on domestic currency, national payment system and exchange control are among the pull factors. Among the push factors are a. The relative decline in external interest order (mostly US long horse rates) when compared to interest rates in developing economies b.Cyclical downturns in economic natural action in developed economies, which reduce the demand for investment funds and c. A move towards intentional diversification of asset portfolios by major portfolio investors such as bounty funds and insurance companies. The literature place both push and pull factor s as being behind the increase in capital flows to developing economies in 1990s. However, it is domestic or pull factors over which policy makers can have direct impact in attracting inflows of private capital. (Asea and Reinhart, 1995) 3. MEASURES TO BE interpreted BY TANZANIA TO INCREASE FDI INFLOWS There are several ways home countries can increase FDI inflows. These include a.Reducing political risk by enhancing the credibility of reforms. sub-Saharan Africa seems to be seen as one analogous continent and therefore the bad demeanour of few governments often leads to a negative image for all. Credibility also matters for the sustainability of reforms. Reforms that are credible are more apt(predicate) to be sustainable in the long run as economic legal document react positively to policy measures and result in virtuous circle behaviors. (Kasekende and Bhundia, 2000) b. political reforms, political disorder is very damage to economic growth and is not contributing(prenominal ) environment for both domestic and foreign investment (Kasekende and Bhundia, 2000).Political reforms should be aimed at building frameworks that are more inclusive, encourage power sharing and allow for enhanced public participation in political exercise. c. Insurance against policy risk. Home countries can sign bilateral or multilateral investment treaties that have legally backbone elements establishing the obligations of the host country toward foreign investors from other signatory countries. d. Macroeconomic stability should be ensured, as it is prerequisite for attracting sustainable, long-term foreign investment into a country. Hadjmichael et al (1996) subroutine the most important impact of policies on private investment behavior was through their effect on macroeconomic un changelessness and uncertainty.This suggests that greater macroeconomic unbalance can have a considerable adverse impact on domestic and foreign private in investment. e. immaterial burden should be reduced. In many African countries external debt armed service, most of it official, continues to bring a significant burden on finances. In principle, heavy external debt does not automatically translate into low growth. Growth in export earnings can allow for continued importation investment goods to maintain growth while avail external debt at the same time. However, if borrowed currency is invested primarily in non-traded sector then the situation will arise where the economy is unable to pay for imports required to maintain growth. 4. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF FDI AS A SOURCE OF economic GROWTHAccording to B. Seedha et al in their paper irrelevant Direct Investment in Africa, FDI is simply a source of capital. The impact of FDI is dependent on what form it takes. This includes types of FDI, sector scale, duration and location of business and secondary effects. It is important to note that while some have experienced growth because of large FDI inflows, others h ave not. FDI can contribute to gross domestic products, gross bushel capital formation and balance of payments. Other contributions FDI can make to host country economy include assisting in debt servicing repayments, stimulating export markets, and producing foreign exchange revenues.Another aspect of FDI is that it can serve as source for economic development is in currency stability. FDI can contribute to social development by increasing employment and wages and by transposition warning market sector. FDI may passing game poverty reduction, since poverty is related with unemployment. eminent levels of FDI do not necessarily show domestic gain (B. Seedha et al). Other factors may limit the economic gain to the host countrys economy. Example of such factors includes corporate strategies, and importation of goods and resources used in production. However FDI is mostly affect by countrys instability. The gain in employment, wages and so on may be realized by very small part of th e population.When this happens wage differences amongst income groups will increase and the distribution of income may become unequal. Another negative effect of FDI as a source of economy is where the parent companies dominate the local market, expiration the local companies with no where to go. CHAPTER THREE 3. 0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. 1. INTRODUCTION This class describes the orderologies framework of the study which includes Research paradigms, Research Design, types of beats, entropy forgatherion methods and approach, types of selective information, sample distribution techniques, taste procedures, reliability and validity of data, management and abridgment of data and limitations of the study. 3. 2RESEARCH PARADIGMS doubles or School of intellection in research scholarship are accepted ways of looking at reality and the consequent approach/methods to contract knowledge that is held by a group of intellectuals who have wide influence in that subject area. The basic p remise behind the paradigms is based on how lot view reality (Lufumbi, 2008). 3. 3 RESEARCH programme Research instauration is the overall plan of the research. It is referred as a blueprint for the appealingness, measurements and digest of data. During the study the Case Study design will be used. This is due to the fact that the research will be conducted in a single organization, and also model study design allows variety methods of data collection methods.In annexition to that casing study design will gives the room to researcher to make rigorous analysis of the organization under the study. Case study design is also less expensive compared to other research designs. However the case study design limits the researcher from abstract entity to other unit of the same sort because it may not be a true re throwative sample. It allows the researcher to be able to get close to the sources of information. 3. 4 RESEARCH TECHNIQUES In analysing the data the researcher will adop t both quantifiable and qualitative techniques. Tables will also be used by the researcher to present the information where applicable. 3. 5TYPES OF MEASUREMENTSMeasurement is a treat of assigning numbers to objects or observation, the level of measurement being a function of the rules under which the number assigned (Kothari, 2004). technically speaking measurement is the process mapping aspects of range according to some rules of correspondence. The measurement of the amass data will be delivered score that will be obtained from the respondent when making sense of data that would make from the research development. The delivered score will be of course those from face to face converse, questionnaires, documentations and observation. 3. 6 SAMPLING TECHNIQUES The simple Random ingest approach will be used to ingest the sample.The researcher expects to follow the quest approach in selecting the sample- All Foreign Investors registered with Tanzania Investment Centre as a popu lation to be examine will be identified through the register. Sample of foreign investors will be d soren promiscuously. Judgment approach to sampling will be used to select the items to be studied. 3. 7 data gathering METHODS AND APPROACHES The data to be collected are those which will be able to address the research objectives and answer the research questions. some(prenominal) primary and secondary data will be used in this study and the research intends to use several relevant data collection method to collect them. 3. 7. 1Primary data Primary data are original works of research or raw data without interpretation or pronouncements that present of official opinion or position. secondary coil data are those data obtained from literature sources. These are the ones that have already been collected by the other people for some other purposes. This is second had information. vicarious data include both raw data and published ones (Sunders et al, 2000). The following methods w ill be used in salt away primary data Interview This method will be use for the purpose of seeking clarifications on some of data collected. For this reason the interview will be in form of verbal and unstructured. Questionnaire The researcher will set relevant questions on factors attracting FDI inflow, and those questionnaires will be distributed to different staffs who will answer them.This method will be used to give adequate time to think about the question and respond to them accordingly. These will be administered to TIC staffs in order to collect data relating to such issues like what they think attract foreign investors to invest in Tanzania, what hinder foreign investors to invest in the country, the advantages of FDI inflow in Tanzania. , and how do they purchase, issue and receive stores. Observation The researcher will observe and participates directly in daily activities of TIC. This will enable the researcher to analyze each particular application effectively and ap propriately. Also this method will make help to the researcher to detect the behavior of the respondents a) Documentary SourceIn this course of collecting data, the researcher will be trying to go through different document held by TIC. 2. Secondary Data The researcher will collect secondary data through the followup of various literatures from different sources such as minutes, reports, policies and legislation regarding the investments in Tanzania. 7. RELIABILITY AND grimness OF DATA The researcher will make sure the measurable data are valid by controlling the questionnaires, and interview and ensure that are directed to the function person at TIC and make sure the reliability of the data by reviewing information which is from reliable and right documents. 1. reliablenessReliability refers to the question of whether a measuring instrument or process can call forth the same results if successively employed by different researchers (Ndunguru, 2007). It refers to the extent to w hich a measure is giving consistent and stable results in a measurement process. 2. rigourousness Validity helps us to measure what it sets out to measure consistently and in a stable manner. It refers to persistence of systematic error in measurement process (Ndunguru, 2007). The validity of the research results is ensured id adequate physical or statistical control is put in place such that research measurement process produces accurate data. Generally validity is about a researcher measuring what he/she out to measure. 8.MANAGEMENT AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 1. Data Management Data will be collected from respective sources by using questionnaire, personal interviews. The respondents are randomly selected. However whenever the approached interviewee was not accessible at that time, the next nearest interviewee will be approached. 2. Data Analysis The data collected from questionnaires, interviews and documents is going to be edited, coded and summarized in order to get information rela ting to problems. The researcher will analyze and test the data using descriptive method, text and schedules, and tables will be used to validate relationship mingled with variables. 3. 9. 3 Data ProcessingThe researcher will use coding in data bear on. This includes numbering and heading so as to simplify and reduce the equivocalness to the reader. Collection of data using questionnaire will be entered in the computer so as to make coding. 3. 9. 4 Data Presentation The determinations of the study will be presented in a form of fib description with illustration of tables and diagrams where applicable. REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY Immanuel D. Mzava & David Hillier (2004) Does Countrys Tax Structure determine its Foreign Direct Investment Flow? The African Journal of Finance & Management, Volume 141 Barbara Seedha, Lauren Maxwel & Joseph Horton (2000) Foreign Direct Investment in Africa The African Journal of Finance & Management, Volume 141 Bank of Tanzania (2001) Report on the S tudy of Foreign Private swell Flows in Mainland Tanzania Tanzania Investment Report. Bank of Tanzania (2006) Report on Foreign Private Investment in Tanzania Tanzania Investment Report. Recep Kok & Bernur Acikgoz Ersoy (2009) Analyses of FDI determinants in Developing Countries International Journal of Social Economics Volume 36 ? PP 105 123 www. emeraldinsight. com Bhinda, N and M. Martin (1994). easterly Africa vision of Foreign Investors, Report by Exocomisti connective for the World Bank. Chege, M (1999). Politics of organic evolution Institutions and National Governance, publisher presented for Africa in the 21st Century Initiative (Washington D. C World Bank) IMF (1999). The Cross-Border Initiative in Eastern and Southern Africa, African and Policy Development and Review Department, IMF. Kasekende L. and I. Hussain (1997). Private Capital Flows to sub-Saharan Africa Whats the Real Story? composing presented at Seminar, A New Paradigm of Financing Development and Develo pment Cooperation, action 1997, Stockholm. Kasekende L. , D. Kitabire and M. Martin (1998). Capital Inflows and Macroeconomic Policy in sub-Saharan Africa, in G. K. Hellier (1998). Capital Accounts Regimes and Developing Countries (London Macmillan Press)Kasekende L. and A. Bhundia (2000). Attracting Capital Inflow to Africa Essential Elements of a Policy Package. Advanced Unedited Copy. UNCTAD (1999), Foreign Direct Investment in Africa operation and Potential, (New York and Geneva, 1999). TIC (2002 and beyond). Tanzania Investors Guide Investment Opportunities and Facilitation (United Republic of Tanzania, March 2002) C. Makunike (Tuesday, September 30, 2008). Tanzanias Foreign Direct Investment inflow up by 15 Percent. (www. tradeafrica. com) D. Makangale (Thursday, January 22, 2009). Investment Climate Attractive (Tanzania Daily watchword Paper) Macias J. B and Massa I. (June 2009). The Global Financial Crisis and Sub-Saharan Africa The perfumes of Slowing Private Capital In flow on Growth Results of ODI Research Presented in Preliminary Form for give-and-take and Critical Comment. (London Overseas Development Institute). Oyeyinka, B. (2004). How can Africa Benefit from Globalization? ATPS Special Paper Series No. 17 www. tic. co. tz visited on tertiary March 2010 APPENDICES APPENDIX I Institute of Finance Management, P. O. Box 3918, Dar es Salaam, 10TH March, 2010. Dear Respondent, I am a student at the Institute of Finance Management undertaking postgraduate Diploma in Financial Management. I am researching on the Potential Factors that fall Foreign Direct Investment Inflow in Tanzania.The questionnaire aims at finding data for a research paper to be presented to the Institute of Finance Management as a partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Award of Postgraduate Diploma in Financial Management. I kindly beseech you to put a tick after appropriate answer and where applicable let off why when requested to do so. The information you give w ill be stringently confidential and will be used for the purpose of this research. Thanking you in advance. Yours truly, Kwareh, Karerema R. APPENDIX II RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE A world(a) breeding Date completed ________/_______/_________ Centre key out ______________________________________ Name and position of the person completing this questionnaire ____________________________________________________________ _Centre Address _____________________________________________ Tel __________________ Fax _______________ netmail ____________ entertain give details of election person whom I may satisfy incase I have any questions __________________________________________________________ Date of Commencing Operations _____________/ _____________/ __________ B GENERAL QUESTIONS 1. To what extent have the following macroeconomic factors bear on investment in our country? Very real +ve effect soused Limited +ve set up No violence Limited unattackable Very wholesome ve opinion +ve effect ve performance ve Effect 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 At start upNow Fiscal policy( ) ( ) Monetary policy( ) ( ) Government Stability( ) ( ) divert add any additional study ____________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ ______ 2. To what extent have the availability of condition of the following Infrastructures and services bear on in our country? Very significant +ve effect gruelling Limited +ve Effect No Effect Limited bulletproof Very Strong ve Effect +ve effect ve Effect ve Effect 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 At start upNow landlocked transport (roads, rails)( ) ( ) Access to seaport( ) ( ) pass aroundport and Air transportation( ) ( ) Electricity supply( ) ( ) Water supply( ) ( ) Please add any additional Information ____________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ ______ 3. To what extent have the following financial factors affected investment in Tanzania? Very strong +ve effectStrong Limited +ve Effect No Effect Limited Strong Very Strong ve Effect +ve effect ve Effect ve Effect 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 At start upNow Inflation( ) ( ) accessibility of business finances/credit( ) ( ) Interest rates ( ) ( ) Depreciation of domestic currency( ) ( ) Exchange Control( ) ( )Please add any additional Information ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________ 4. To what extent the following governance factors affected investment opportunities in Tanzania? Very strong +ve effectStrong Limited +ve Effect No Effect Limited Strong Very Strong ve Effect +ve effect ve Effect ve Effect 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 At start upNow regional Trade( ) ( ) Trade policy( ) ( ) Bureaucracy ( ) ( ) Tax collection efficiency( ) ( ) Land law & administration( ) ( ) Please add any additional Information _________________________________________ ___________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________ 5. Please specify the most important factors that influence your initial decision to invest in Tanzania? ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________ 6. What is the likely direction of foreign direct investment in Tanzania in the ordinary term? Please tick appropriate box Expansion No switch Contraction 7.What measures can the government cut to improve investors attractiveness to continue investing in Tanzania and attract new investors? a. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ _______________________________________ _____________________ b. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ c. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ d. ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Thank you for your time. APPENDIX III time SCHEDULE This timetable will be of great help to me as a researcher to organize activities to be carried out and divvy up the time accordingly. This will act as my guideline. The estimated time of conducting the research is 9 weeks. workweek Activity 1st 2nd week Preliminary preparation i. e. research proposal, budget, finding the assistant for help if necessary e . t. c. 3rd 4th hebdomad Preparation of questionnaires, visit the respondents and distribution of questionnaires 5th 6th Week Collection of questionnaire from respondents, analysis of the data, verification and processing 7th 8th Week rewriting the paper, re-writing and bidding 9th Week Presenting the paper and argue APPENDIX IV RESEARCH cipher 1. 0 STATIONARY TSHS 1. 1 Ream of rule paper x2 7,000 14,000 1. 2 Ream of A4 plain paper x 2 8,000 16,000 1. Flash disc x 1 50,000 50,000 1. 4 gawk pen, pencil, collection fluid 10,000 2. 0 secretarial SERVICES 2. 1 Proposal type and printing x 2 copies 100,000 2. 2 Research Typing and printing x 2 copies 150,000 2. 3 Binding 50,000 2. 4 Photocopying of documents 20,000 3. RESEARCH EXPENSES 3. 1 Assistance Researcher 80,000 3. 2 Transport to and fro 250,000 3. 3 eat/lunch e. t. c 100,000 3. 4 hearing 50,000 Sub-total 890,000 + Contingency 30% 1,157,000